Image description

Published yearly: 

4 Issues


ISSN: 2320-964X (Online) 

ISSN: 2320-7817  (Print)



Dr. Santosh Pawar 




Int. Journal of Life Sciences, 2017; 5(1):87-92      |    Available online, 06 April, 2017

Histological changes in gills and liver of fishes in river Sutlej as an effect of Buddha Nullah pollution at 



Aditi Jaidka and Hundal SS

Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141004 (Punjab), India

Corresponding author E mail:

Received: 16.12.2016 | Accepted: 19.03.2017 | Published : 06.04.2017

Buddha nullah serves as a reservoir of industrial and sewage effluents of Ludhiana, Punjab containing high levels of toxic chemical discharged directly into river Sutlej. This leads to deterioration in the water quality and is a serious threat to fish fauna of the river. The study aims to investigate the level of changes in the histological architecture of gills and liver of fish from 3 sampling sites - 2km downstream in river Sutlej after the confluence with Buddha Nullah, 2 km upstream in river Sutlej after the confluence with Buddha Nullah and 5 km upstream in river Sutlej after the confluence with Buddha Nullah caused by Buddha Nullah pollution. Significantly higher histological abnormalities were observed in fish species collected from downstream area than upstream. Complete secondary lamellar fusion, breakage and degeneration of secondary epithelium, detachment of secondary epithelium, necrosis of lamellae, vasodilation of secondary lamellae, haemorrhage and vasodilation in primary lamellae were found in the gills of fish inhabiting polluted waters. In contrast, fish captured from 5 km upstream site (non polluted site) showed milder alterations limited to ruptured secondary epithelium only. Histology of liver showed vacuolization of hepatocytes, degenerative hepatocytes, necrosis and disruption of normal architecture in the fish from polluted sites whereas the sections of the tissues from fish collected from non polluted site of the river Sutlej exhibit a normal structure of hepatocytes with a rare occurance of mild necrosis The study clearly exhibits the deleterious effect fish vital organs even after a small extent of exposure to contaminated natural waters.


Keywords:  Histopathology, Cyprinus carpio, Gills, Liver, Water pollution


Editor: Dr. Arvind Chavhan


Cite this article as:

Aditi Jaidka and Hundal SS (2017) Histological changes in gills and liver of fishes in river Sutlej as an effect of Buddha Nullah pollution at Ludhiana, International J. of Life Sciences, 5 (1):87-92. 



The authors are grateful to University Grands Commission (UGC) for financial assistance under Major Research Project sanctioned to corresponding author. The facilities provided by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), the Government of India, through the All-India Coordinated Research Project on Pearl Millet Improvement Program (AICRP-PM) is also gratefully acknowledged.


Conflicts of interest: The authors stated that no conflicts of interest.



Copyright: © 2017 | Author(s), This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial - No Derivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.


Abalaka SE (2015) Heavy metals accumulation and histopathological changes in Auchenoglanis occidentalis fish from Tiga dam, Nigeria. J. Environ. Health. Sci., Eng 13:67.

Ahmed M, Ahmad T, Liaquat M, Abbasi KS, Farid IBA and Jahangir M (2016) Tissue specific metal characterization of selected fish species in Pakistan. Environ. Monit. Assess., 188: 212 -220.

Arslan OC, Katalay HPC, Boyacioglu M, Karaaslan MA and Guner H (2010) Detecting micronuclei frequency in some aquatic organisms for monitoring pollution of Izmir Bay (Western Turkey). Environ. Monit. Assess., 165:55-66.

Au DWT (2008) The application of histopathological biomarkers in marine pollution monitoring: A review.  Mar Pollut Bull 48:817-834.

Authman MN, Zaki MS, Khallaf EA and Abbas HH (2015) Use of fish as bio-indicator of the  effects of heavy metals pollution. J. Aqua. Res. Dev., 6(4): 13.

Bols NC, Brubacher J, Ganassin RC and Lee LEJ (2001). Ecotoxicology and innate immunity in fish. Dev. Comp. Immunol., 25: 853-873.

Kaptener A, Kankaya K and Dogan A (2014) Histopathology and oxidative stress in the liver of Chalcalburnus tarichi living in lake Van, Turkey. Life. Sci. J. 11(8): 66-77.

Kaur T  (1997) Impact of Budha Nallah on the biology of some economically important fishes inhabiting river Satluj. Unpublished Ph. D Thesis, Punjab Agricultural University.

Mahboob S, Al-Balawi HFA, Al-Misned F, Al-Quraishy. S and Ahmad Z (2014) Tissue metal distribution and risk assessment for important fish species from Saudi Arabia. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 92: 61-66.

Mohamed FA, Khan S and Patil R (2008) Bioaccumulation of selected metals and histopathological alterations in tissues of Oreochromis niloticusand Lates niloticus from Lake Nasser, Egypt. Glob. Vet., 2(4): 205-218.

Pacheko M, Santos K and Abais K (2002) Biotransformation, genotoxic, and histopatholo-gical effects of environmental contaminants in European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) Ecotoxico. Environ. Safety., 53: 331-347.

Olurin K, Olojo E, Mbaka G and Akindele A (2006) Histopathological responses of the gill and liver tissue of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings to the herbicide, glyphosate. Afr. J. Biotechnol.,  5:2480-2487.

Saxena PK and Jior RS (1992) Impact of the Budha Nallah brook on the river Satluj waters.       II‐occurrence of fish and reproductive biology of Cirrhina mrigala. Intl. J. Env. Stud., 39: 305-311.

Sultana T, Butt K, Salma SS, Al-Ghanim KA, Mubashra R, Bashir N, Ahmed Z, Ashraf A and Mahboob S (2016) Histopathological changes in liver, gills and intestine of Labeo rohita inhabiting industrial waste contaminated water of River Ravi. Pak. J. Zool., 48(4):1171-1177.

Thakur JS, Prinja S, Singh, Rajwanshi A, Arora S, Prasad R and Parwana HK (2014) Genotoxicity and adverse human health outcomes among people living near highly polluted waste water drains in Punjab, India. World. J. Pharmac. Res., 4: 895-908.

Yarsan E and Yipel M (2013) The important terms of marine pollution biomarkers and biomonitoring, bioaccumulation, bioconcentration, biomagnifica-tion.  J. Mol. Biomark. Diagn., 1: 003.







    Origin & Evolution

    Print ISSN : 2320-7817 

    Online ISSN:2320-964X

    UGC Approved Journal No. 48951


    46, Guruwandan, Jawahar Nagar, 

    VMV Road, Amravati- 444604

    Maharashtra, India.

    Tel  + 91- 9970559438  |   9420775527  

    Email: |