Image description

Published yearly: 

4 Issues


ISSN: 2320-964X (Online) 

ISSN: 2320-7817  (Print)



Dr. Santosh Pawar 




Int. Journal of Life Sciences, 2017; 5(1):117- 126    |    Available online, 11 April, 2017

Significance and Management of Chickpea Wilt/root rot and Future Prospects in Ethiopia. A Review 

Asrat Z



Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Debre Zeit Center, P.O. Box 32, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia


Received: 02.02.2017    |    Accepted: 29.01.2017 | Published : 11.04.2017

Chickpea production and productivity in Ethiopia has recently declined and high potential yield gaps because of several abiotic and biotic factors. The average chickpea yield in Ethiopia is usually below 2 t/ha although its potential yield is more than 5 t/ha. It is resulted from susceptibility of chickpea landraces to heat stress, terminal drought, water-logging and poor cultural practices. One of the greatest biotic stress reducing potential yields in chickpea is chickpea wilt/root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris which is serious problem especially in the rain fed area. The diseases were more prevalent in most of North western and Central Ethiopia and high disease incidence was found on local than improved variety. Fusarium wilt is both seed and soil borne disease. In Ethiopia, about 30% yield loss of chickpea due to chickpea wilt has been reported. The wilt root rot caused yield loss of 50–80% in some farmers’ fields and sometimes even 100% loss on local variety. The fungus can survive in soil as means of chlamydospore and in chickpea debris. The pathogen only pathogenic to chickpea and another legume and weed species also serve as symptomless carrier. Spores can be moved short distance through rain splash, wind, water moving and farm machinery to surrounding plants and transported over large distance in infected seed in to new area. There was four race of pathogenic variability were well known in the country. Chickpea wilt/root rot controlled through use of resistant cultivar is most cost effective and practicable approach. The integrated management strategies like resistant cultivar, bed preparation, sowing time, soil-solirazation, bio-control, bio-fumigants and chemical treatments best approach to reduce the incidence of the wilt/root rot of chickpea and optimization of the yields.  Therefore, the further studies of pathogen races, development of other management methods and verification of available methods need focus and encouragements on production of bio control agents as components of integrated disease management. In these paper, available management and epidemiology wilt/root rot disease were reviewed in chickpeas in Ethiopia.


Key words: Chickpea, wilt root rot, disease management, resistance, bio control, variability


Editor: Dr. Arvind Chavhan


Cite this article as:

Asrat Z (2017) Significance and Management of Chickpea Wilt/root rot and Future Prospects in Ethiopia. A Review, International J. of Life Sciences, 5 (1): 117-126.


Conflicts of interest: The authors stated that no conflicts of interest.



Copyright: © 2017 | Author(s), This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial - No Derivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.


Ahmad MA, Sheikh MI, Najma A, Yasmin A, and Abida A, (2010) Identification of resistant sources in chickpea against fusarium wilt. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(1): 417-426.

Alemu A (1978) Food legume disease in Ethiopia. In Food legume improvement and development (Hawtin, G.C., and Chancellor, G.H., (eds) Proceedings of a workshop held at the University of Aleppo, 2-7May1978, Aleppo, Syria. ICARDA/IDRC pp106-108.

Alemu M, and Sinclair JB (1979) Seed-borne microorganisms in Ethiopian grown soybean and chickpeas. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1, 48-59.

Arfaoui A, El Hadrami A, Mabrou Y, Sifi B, Boudabous A, El Hadrami I, Daayf F, Cherif, M.(2007) Treatment of chickpea with Rhizobium isolates enhances the expression of  phenyl- propanoid  defense-related  genes  in  response  to  infection  by  Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceriEuphytica. 45: 470-79.

Asfaw T, Gelatu B and Berhe, A (1994) Role of cool season food legumes and their production constraints in Ethiopia agriculture. Pp. 3-18. In: Cool Season Food Legumes of Ethiopia.

Auckland AK and Vander-Maesen LJG (1980) Chickpea-ICRISAT Crop Science Society of America, 67:249-259.

Backman PA and Turmer JT (1989) Plant response and disease control following seed inoculation with Bacillus subtilis. In proceedings belt wide Cotton Products Research Conference (Book 2), J.M. Brown (ed.) National Cotton Council of American, Memphis, 16-17.

Bekele S Jones R, Silim S, Tekelewold H and Gwata E (2007) Analysis of production costs, market opportunities and competitiveness of desi and kabuli chickpea in Ethiopia. IMPS (Improving productivity and market Success) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 3. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 48pp.

Bendre NJ and Barhate BG (1998) A souvenir on Disease Management in chickpea.

Butler EJ (1918) Fungi and diseases of plants. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, New Connaugh Place., Dehradun Periodical Experts. 42-D, Vivek Vihar, Delhi, 32, pp547.

Carranza JM (1965) Wilt of chickpea (C. arietinum L.) caused by B. cinerea (in Spanish) Revta. Fac. Agron.Univ. Nae. La Plata, 41:135-138.

Chauhan YS, Nene YL, Johansen C, Haware MP, Saxena NP, Sardar S, Sharma SB, Sahrawat KL, Burford JR, Rupela OP, Kumar Rao JVDK, Sithanantham S (1988) Effects of soil solarization on pigeon pea and chickpea. Res. Bull. no 11. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, A.P., India.

CSA (Central Statistical Agency) (2016) Agricultural sample survey report on area and production of crops private peasant holdings, meher season. Pp 2-4. September–December 2014/2015 Volume I, Statistical Bulletin No. 388, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Dastur JF (1935) Gram wilt in control provinces. AGRI. Livestock. Indit.4:615-627.

Debela S, Zeleke A, Abebe A, Tulu A, Mariam YW and Beniwal S (1987) Research on groundnut, pigeon pea and chickpea in Ethiopia. Research on grain legumes in Eastern and central Africa. Summary proceedings of consultative group meeting for Eastern and Central African legumes (groundnut, chickpea and pigeon pea) pp 44-45.

Diapari M, Sindhu A, Bett K, Deokari A, Warkentin DT and Tar’an B (2014) Genetic diversity and association mapping of iron and zinc concentration in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L). Genome, 57: 459-468.

Duro Almazan MD (2000) Influence of the Temperature, PH in vitro the Races of the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. M. Sc. thesis. Universidad the Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain (in Spanish).

DZARC (Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center) (2005) Annual Research Report 2004/05. Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

DZARC (Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center) (2006) Annual Research Report 2005/06. Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

DZARC (Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center) (2009) Annual Research Report 2008/09. Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

FAOSTAT, (2014) Available online:  (accessed on 10 October 2016).

Gaur MP, Kumar J, Rao BV, Ketema D, Geletu B and Yadeta A (2005) A new kabuli chickpea variety for Ethiopia. Pp 15-16.

Gaur MP, Aravind KJ and Rajeev KV (2012) A review of impact of Genomic technologies on chickpea breeding strategies. Agronomy, 2: 200-203, India.

Geletu B, Million E, Yadeta A (1996) Improved cultivars and production technology of chickpea in Ethiopia. Debre-Zeit Agricultural Research Center Research Bulletin. No. 2: p. 60.

Geletu B and Yadeta A (1994) Breeding chickpea for resistance to drought. International   symposium on pulse research, April 2-6. New Delhi, India, pp. 145-146.

Gupta OM (1991) Symptomless carrier of chickpea vascular wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp ciceris. Legume Research. Jabalpur 482004. Madhya Pradesh, India. 14(4):193-194.

Gupta OM, Khare MN and Kotasthane SR (1986) Variability among six isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp ciceris causing vascular wilt of chickpea. Indian Phytopathology. 39: 279–281.

Haware, MP and Nene YL (1982a) Chickpea fusarium wilt and source of resistant selections. Plant Disease, 66: 250-251.

Haware MP and Nene YL (1980) Influence of wilt at different growth stages on yield loss of chickpea. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin, 19:38–40.

Haware MP (1982) Fusarium wilt and its managements. Phytopathology 68: 1364-1367.

Haware MP (1990) Fusarium wilt and other important disease of chickpea in the Mediterranean area. Options Mediterranean Seminar 9, 61-64.

Haware MP, Nene YL and Natarajan M (1996) Survival of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Plant Disease, 66: 809-810.  

Haware MP, Nene YL and Rajeshware R (1978) Eradication of F. oxysporum f. sp.  ciceris transmitted in chickpea seed. Phytopathology. 68:1364-1367.

IAR (Institute of Agricultural Research) (1977) Holeta Genet Research Station Progress Report, April 1975 to March 1976 (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: IAR).

Iqbal SM, Rauf CA, Bakhsh A and Iqbal U (2005) Variability in F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Myco pathology. 3(2):47-51.

Jagdish K (2001) The world chickpea and pigeon pea Economies: Facts, Trends, and Outlook. Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pardesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.

Jalali BL and Chand H (1992) Chickpea wilt. Pages 429-444. In Plant Diseases of International Importance. Vol. 1. Diseases of Cereals and Pulses. U. S. Singh, A. N. Mukhopadhayay, J. Kumar, and H. S. Chaube, eds. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Jimenez-Díaz RM, Basallote-Ureba MJ, Rapoport H (1989a) Colonization and pathogenesis in chickpea infected by races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. In: Tjamos, E.C., Beckman, C. (Eds.), Vascular Wilt Diseases of Plants, vol. H28. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 113-12.

Jimenez-Fernandez D, Landa BB, Kang S, Jimenez-Díaz RM, Navas-Cortes JA (2013) Quantitative and microscopic assessment of compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races.

Jimenez-Gasco MM, Milgroom MG, Jimenez-Díaz RM (2004a) Stepwise evolution of races in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris inferred from fingerprinting with repetitive DNA sequence. Phytopathology 94, 228-235.

Joshi PK Parthasarathy RP, Gowda CLL, Jones RB. Silim SN, Saxena KB and Jagdish K (2001) The world chickpea and pigeon pea Economies: Facts, Trends, and Outlook. Patancheru (502) 324, Andhra Pardesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 68 pp.

Kaiser WJ, Alcala-Jimenez AR, Hervas-Vargas A, Trapero-Casas JL, Jimenez Díaz RM (1994) Screening of wild Cicer species for resistance races 0 and 5 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Plant Disease. 78, 962-967

Karimi K, Amini J, Harighi B and Bahramnejad B (2012) Evaluation of biocontrol potential of Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Australian Journal of Crop Sciences 6(4):695-703

Kausar AG (1960) Gram Wilt in Fifty Years of Investigation on Plant Diseases. Pp 23.

Kraft JM, Haware MP, Jimenez-Diaz RM, Bayaan B and Harrab R(1994) Screening techniques and sources of resistance to root rots and wilts in cool season food legumes.  In F.J. Muehlbauer and W.J. Kaiser (ed.) Expanding the production and use of cool season food legumes, Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

Mazid A, Amegbeo K, Shideed K and Malhotra RS (2009) Impact of crop improvement and management: winter-sown chickpea in Syria International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria. pp52.

Meki S, Seid A and Sakhuja PK (2008) Pathogenic variability in Ethiopian isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and reaction of chickpea improved varieties to the isolates, International Journal of Pest Management, 54:2, 143-149.

Melese D (2005) Morphological and RAPD marker variation analysis in some drought tolerant and susceptible chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes of Ethiopia. M.Sc Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia Pp2-5.

Mengistu H, Negussie T (1994) Chickpea and lentil disease research in Ethiopia. In: Asfaw T, Geletu B, Saxena MC, Solh MB, editors. Cool-season food legumes of Ethiopia. Proceedings of the First National Cool-Season Food Legumes Review Conference; 1993 Dec 16–20; Addis Ababa: ICARDA; p. 315–366.

Merkuz A and Getachew A (2012) Influence of chickpea Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris) on Desi and Kabuli-type of chickpea in integrated disease management option at wilt sick plot in North Western Ethiopia. International Journal of Current Research 4 (04): 046-052.

Merkuz A, Seid A, Chemeda F, Sakhuja PK and Getachew A (2011a) Effect of mustard green manure and dried plant residue on chickpea wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 44 (9): 821 – 831.

Millan T, Clarke H, Siddique K, Buhariwalla H, Gaur P, Kumar J, Gil J, Kahl G and Winter P (2006) Chickpea molecular breeding: New tools and concepts. Euphytica, 147, 81-103.

Muhammad A, Khalil A, Muhammad AM, Saira B, Qamar UZ, and Ghulam MT (2014) Assessment of adaptability in genetically diverse chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L.) based on different phsio-morphological standards under ascochyta blight inoculation. International Journal of Advanced Research, 3(2): 245-255.

Navas-Cortes JA, Hau B, Jimenez-Diaz RM (1998) Effect of sowing date, host cultivar, and race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris on development of Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Phytopathology. 88:1338–1346.

Nazir MA, Khan MA and Ali S (2012) Evaluation of national and international chickpea germplasm for resistance against Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris) in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of phytopathology. 24 (2): 149-151.

Nene YL and Haware MP (1980) Screening chickpea for resistance to wilt. Plant Disease 64, 379–380.

Nene YL and Reddy MV (1987) Chickpea diseases and their control. In: The Chickpea, (M.C. Saxena, K.B. Singh, ed.), CABI Publishing, CAB Int., Wallingford, UK, 233–270.

Nene YL, Sheila VK and Sharma SB (1996) A World List of Chickpea and Pigeon pea Pathogens, 5th ed. ICRISAT, Patancheru, India, pp. 27.

Nene YL, Sheila VK and Sharma SB (1984) A world list of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) Pathogens ICRISAT Pulse Pathology Progress. Report 32: pp.19.

Pande S, Sharma M, Gaur PM and Gowda CLL (2010) Host Plant Resistance to Ascochyta Blight of Chickpea. Bulletin No 80, pp 1-8, India.

Pande S, Rao JN, Sharma M (2007)Establishment of the chickpea wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in the soil through seed transmission. Plant Pathology Journal 23, 3-6.

Pande S, Sharma M, Guar PM, Tripathi S, Kaur L, Basandria A, Khan T, Gowda CLL and Siddique KHM (2011) Development of screening techniques and identification of new sources of resistance to Ascochyta blight disease of chickpea. Australians Plant Pathology, 40: 149-156.

Qurban A, Muhammad I, Arbab A, Muhammad HNT, Muhammad A, Nazir J and Jehanzeb F (2013) Screening of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germpalsm against ascochyta blight [Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab.] correlation and combining ability analysis for various quantitative traits. Journal of Plant breeding and Crop science, 5 (6): 103-104.

Saxena MC and Singh KB (1987) The chickpea published by C.A.B. Int. ICARDA. pp: 250-252.

Seid A, Beniwal SPS and Negussie T (1990) Field screening of chickpea for resistance to wilt/root rot in Ethiopia. International Chickpea Newsletter 22, 34-36. 

Sharma KD, Chen W and Muehlbauer, FJ (2005) Genetics of chickpea resistance to five races of Fusarium wilt and a concise set of race differentials for F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Plant Disease. 89:385-390.

Singh BP, Saikia R, Yadav M, Singh R, Chauhan VS and Arora DK (2006) Molecular characterization of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris causing wilt of chickpea, African Journal of Biotechnology. 5(6):497-502.

Soran H (1975) The most diseases of chickpea in central Anatolia (in German). Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 4(2): 53-60.

Stevenson PC, Turner HC, Haware MP (1997) Phytoalexin accumulation in the roots of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seedlings associated with resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris). Physiology of Molecular Plant Pathology. 50,167-178.

Trapero-Casas A and Jiménez-Díaz RM (1985) Fungal wilt and root rot diseases of Chickpea in Southern Spain. Phytopathology 75: 1146-1151.

Van-der Maesen LJG (1987) Cicer L. Origin, history and taxonomy of chickpea. P.11-34. In: M.C. Saxena and K.B. Singh (ed.), The Chickpea. C.A.B. Int. Cambrian News Ltd, Aberystwyth, UK.

Yadeta A and Geletu B (2002) Evaluation of Ethiopian chickpea landraces for tolerance to drought. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution49: 557-564. 






    Origin & Evolution

    Print ISSN : 2320-7817 

    Online ISSN:2320-964X

    UGC Approved Journal No. 48951


    46, Guruwandan, Jawahar Nagar, 

    VMV Road, Amravati- 444604

    Maharashtra, India.

    Tel  + 91- 9970559438  |   9420775527  

    Email: |