Image description

Published yearly: 

4 Issues


ISSN: 2320-964X (Online) 

ISSN: 2320-7817  (Print)



Dr. Santosh Pawar 




Int. Journal of Life Sciences, 2017; 5(1):21- 34  |    Available online, 31 March, 2017

Productivity, Nutrient removal, Soil nutrient dynamics and Economics of Tef (Eragrostis tef (zucc.)Trotter) Production in Relation to Genotypes and Integrated Nutrient Management on Vertisols of Mid high lands of Oromia region of Ethiopia, East Africa


Yonas Mebratu; Cherukuri V Raghavaiah *and Habtamu Ashagre.


Department of plant science, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Ambo University, Ambo, Post Box No.19, West Shoa Zone ,Ethiopia.

*Corresponding author: Cherukuri V Raghavaiah

Received: 08.12.2016 | Accepted: 21.02.2017 | Published : 31.03.2017

Tef, a highly valued nutritious cereal crop, plays an important role in the diet of Ethiopians.  Field experiment was carried out during 2014/15 cropping season on a field belonging to Hommicho Ammunition Engineering Industry with the objective to evaluate the response of Tef genotypes to integrated nutrient management in terms of productivity  in Guder, Toke kuttai district. The treatments consisted of six levels of integrated nutrient management practices:1) 0 -0 -0 (check) 2) 40 -60 -0 NPK (RDF) 3) 50%RDF + 50% N (FYM) 4)75%RDF + 25% N (FYM) 5) 100% RDF + 5t FYM/ha and 6)RDF through new complex fertilizer (19 -38 – 7 NPS) tested on  five genotypes (Magna, Simoda ,Quncho , Dz –Cr -409, Local variety). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement with three replications. The results revealed that there was distinct variation between varieties and integrated nutrient management practices in grain and straw yield, where DZ-01-196 recorded maximum grain and straw yield with application of 100% RDF + 5t/ha FYM which was comparable with 75%RDF + 25% FYM. Therefore application of 50% RDF + 50%FYM, 75%RDF + 25%FYM and 100%RDF + 5tha-1 to DZ-01-196, DZ-CR-409 and Local varieties of Tef , respectively exhibited best production performance on Vertisols of mid high lands of Ethiopia. The nutrient content of grain was found to be greater than that of straw. Application of 100%RDF +5t/ha-1 FYM and 75%RDF +25%FYM analysed higher content of NPK both in grain and straw than other treatments, ultimately resulting in greater nutrient removal than with inorganic fertilizer alone  and no fertilizer check . The- post harvest available NPK content of soil in comparison with initial status was found to be higher with INM than no fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer treatments. Economic analysis showed that higher MRR, Benefit: cost ratio and return /Birr investment were accrued with 100%RDF+5t/ha FYM and 75%RDF+25%FYM when compared with inorganic fertilizer and no fertilizer check.


Key words: Tef, genotypes, nutrient management, Vertisols, mid high lands, productivity, Nutrient removal, soil nutrient balance , economics



Editor: Dr. Arvind Chavhan


Cite this article as:

Yonas Mebratu; Cherukuri V Raghavaiah and Habtamu Ashagre  (2017) Productivity, Nutrient removal, Soil nutrient dynamics and Economics of Tef (Eragrostis tef (zucc.)Trotter) Production in Relation to Genotypes and Integrated Nutrient Management on Vertisols of Mid high lands of Oromia region of Ethiopia, East Africa, International J. of Life Sciences, 5  (1): 21-34.




The completion of this study would have not been realized without the help of others and I would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who helped me with this study. First I would like to express my thanks and appreciation to Mulatu wakgari (PhD), Mr. Muluken Goftishu, Mashila Dejjene (PhD),Tesfay Belay (PhD) and Firdu Azerefegn(PhD)  for their critical review of the paper. It has helped me to improve the quality of the report and compilation of my work. The research work reported in this paper in collaboration with my home institution Tigray Agricultural research Institute, Mekelle Agricultural research Center. I am very grateful to, Tigray Agricultural Research Institute for the financial support and Haramaya University for free laboratory material support.


Conflicts of interest: The authors stated that no conflicts of interest.



Copyright: © 2017 | Author(s), This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial - No Derivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.


Abuhay Takele. (1997) Genetic variability in dry matter production, partitioning and grain yield oftef [Eragrostistef (zucc) Trotter] under moisture deficit. SINET: Ethiopi. J. Sci. 20: 177-188.

Al–Abdul Salam MA (1997) Influence of nitrogen fertilization rates and residual effect of organic manure rates on the growth and yield of wheat. Arab Gulf J. Sci. Res., 15: 647–60.

Balesh T, BerntAune J,  Breland T (2007) Availability of organic nutrient sources and their effects on yield and nutrient recovery of tef [Eragrostistef(Zucc.) Trotter] and on soil Properties.Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 170: 543–550.

Belay Shiferaw,  Baker DB (1996) Agronomy and Morphological response of tef to drought .Trop.sci.36: 41-50.

Blum (1989) considerable genetic variation in grain yield and dry matter accumulation exist between and within in crop species.

Brady NC, Weil RR (2002) The Nature and Properties of Soils. 13th ed. Person Education Ltd, USA.pp:621 .

Central Statistic Authority (2008) Agricultural Sample Survey 2007/2008 (Vol.1). Report on area and production for major crops (private peasant holdings Meher season) Statistical Bulletin 417, Addis Ababa.

Day PR (1965) Hydrometer method of particle size analysis. In: Back CA (ed.),Method of Soil Analysis. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsm .Agron. No 9, Part 2. Pp: 562.

DzARC (Debrezeit Agricultural Research Center). (1988) Annual research report for 1987/88.Debrezeit, Ethiopia, p. 147.

Fufa Hundera, Tesfa Bogale, Hailu Tefera, Kebebew Assefa, Tiruneh Kefyalew, Abera Debelo and  Seyfu Ketema. (2001) Agronomy Research in tef. In: Hailu Tefera, Getachew Belay and M. Sorrels (eds.), Narrowing the Rift: Tef Research and Development, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Tef Genetics and Improvement, 16-19 October, 2000. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp: 167-176.

Haftom Gebretsadik, Mitiku Haile,  Yamoah CH. (2009) Tillage frequency, soil compaction and N-fertilizer rate effects on yield of tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter). Ethiopia Journal of Science 1(1): 82-94.

Hailu Tefera,  Seyfu Ketema. (1990) Variability and genetic advance in tef (Eragrostis tef)  cultivars. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 67:317-320.

Kelsa Kena. (1998) Effect of DAP and Urea fertilizers on grain yield of three tef varieties in Awassa and Areka. In: Tadele G/Selasssie and SahlemedhinSertsu (eds.).Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Soil Science. Feb. 26-28, 1998, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp: 122-127.

Kenea Yadeta, Getachew Ayele,  Workneh Negatu. (2001) Farming Research on Tef:  Small Holders Production Practices. In: Hailu Tefera, Getachew Belay and M. Sorrels (eds.),Narrowing the Rift: Tef Research and Development.Proceeding of the International Work shop on tef genetics and improvement, 16-19 October, 2000, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Landon JR (1991) Booker Tropical Soil Manual: A Handbook for Soil Survey and Agricultural Land Evaluation in the Tropics and Sub-tropics. Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex, New York. pp: 474 .

Mitiku H  Fassil K (1996) Soil and moisture conservation in Semi-arid areas of Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of the Third Conference of Ethiopian Soil Science Society (ESSS). February 28-29, 1996, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Mulat Demeke (1999) Agricultural Technology, Economic Viability and Poverty Alleviation in Ethiopia, Paper presented to the Agricultural Transformation Policy Workshop, 27-30 June,1999, Nairobi, Kenya.

Miller R.W, Donahue RL (1995) Soils In Our Environment. 7th ed. Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.

National Academy of Sciences. (1996) Lost crops of Africa Volume 1, Grains. Bostid NationalResearch Council. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C, USA.

NFIU (National Fertilizer and Input Unit) (1993) Agronomic feasibility of the proposed recommendation and comparison with the previous recommendation. NFIU general paper No.17. Addis Ababa.

Nelson D W, Sommers L E (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: A. L. Page R H,. Miller,   Keeney DR (eds). Methods of Soil Analysis.Part 2.Agronomy 9, (2ndedn). pp. 539-579. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, USA.

Olsen S and Sommer L (1982)  Phosphorus method for soil analysis; part 2.Chemical and microbiological properties. ASA Monograph number 9:403 – 430.

Piccinin Doris (2010) "More About Ethiopian Food: Teff." Ethno Med:Ethiopian food.Online. ternet.available<> (2 Sept. 2010)

SAS Institute. (2004) JMP 5.1.1 Users Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA.

Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1984) Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc. Singapore.

Seyfu Ketema. (1993) Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.)Trotter].Breeding, Genetic Resources, Agronomy, Utilization and Role in Ethiopian Agriculture. Institute of Agricultural   Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Seyfu Ketema. (1997) Tef [Eragrostis tef ( Zucc.) Trotter].  Promoting the conservation and   use of underutilized and   neglected crops. Biodiversity institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Tekalign Mamo. (1998) Effect of source, rate and timing of nitrogen applied to wheat on soil N level in a vertisol in central highland of Ethiopia. In: Crop Management Options to sustain Food Security. Pp: 85-100.

Tekalign Mammo, Teklu Erkossa and Balesh Tulema. (2001) Soil Fertility and Plant NutritionResearch on Tef in Ethiopia. pp. 199-200. In: Hailu Tefera, Getachew Belay and Mark Sorrels (eds.) Narrowing the Rift. Tef Research and Development, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Tef Genetics and Improvement, 16-19 October, 2000. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp: 167-176.

Tareke Berhe, (2008) Increasing Productivity of Tef, Eragrostistef(Zucc.) Trotter: New Approaches with Dramatic results (Unpublished Report), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

UNDP (2002) UNDP assistance in the fifth country program to the agricultural sector.

Van Reeuwijk LP (1992) Procedures for soil analysis (3rd ed.). International soil reference and information center, Wageningen (ISRIC).

Warraich, EA, Ahmad, NSMA Basra, and Afzal I (2002) Effect of nitrogen on source–sinkrelationship in wheat. Int. Journal. Agri. Biol. 4: 300–302.

Yihenew G. (2002) Selected chemical and physical characteristics of soils of Adet Research Centre and its testing sites in north western Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Natural Resources, 4(2): 199-215.

Yu JK, Graznak E, Breseghello F, Hailu Tefera,  Sorrells ME. (2007)  QTL mapping of agronomic traits in tef [Eragrostistef (Zucc) Trotter]. BMC Plant Biol. 7: 13.







    Origin & Evolution

    Print ISSN : 2320-7817 

    Online ISSN:2320-964X

    UGC Approved Journal No. 48951


    46, Guruwandan, Jawahar Nagar, 

    VMV Road, Amravati- 444604

    Maharashtra, India.

    Tel  + 91- 9970559438  |   9420775527  

    Email: |