Image description

Published yearly: 

4 Issues


ISSN: 2320-964X (Online) 

ISSN: 2320-7817  (Print)



Dr. Santosh Pawar 




Int. Journal of Life Sciences, 2017; 5(1):35- 45  |    Available online, 31 March, 2017

Pathogenicity and molecular characterization of coffee bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae van Hall) isolates from Sidama and Gedeo Zones, SNNP Regional State, Ethiopia.


Gabisa Giddisa Hinkosa1, Alemu Lencho1, Thangavel Selvaraj1* and Kasahun Sadessa2

1Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Ambo University, Ambo, Post Box No: 19, Ethiopia, East Africa.

2Department of Bacteriology, Ambo Plant Protection Research Center (APPRC), Ambo, Ethiopia, Post Box No: 37, East Africa.

*Corresponding author: Email:  |  Contact: +251-913073294


Received: 22.12.2016 | Accepted: 14.02.2017 | Published : 31.03.2017

Bacterial blight of coffee (BBC) caused by the phytopathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae van Hall is an important disease  of Arabica coffee in Ethiopia due to its increasing incidence and severity. There is no information on the current status, pathogenicity and molecular characterization of the pathogen in this study area in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the disease intensity, pathogenicity and molecular characterization of BBC isolates from Sidama and Gedeo zones, SNNP Regional State, Ethiopia. A total 204 coffee trees, 96 coffee fields or peasant associations in 6 districts and in 2 coffee producing zones in SNNP Region was surveyed during the study time. The frequency and intensity of BBC disease was varied between the zones and districts of coffee producing surveyed areas. The percentage of disease incidence (70.0, 56.1, 44.6, 39.3%) and the severity (29.9, 15.7, 13.7, 12.5%) were recorded in Wensho, Dara, Aletachuko, Aletawondo districts of Sidama zone and the incidence (72.2 and 47%) and severity (21.6 and 13.1 %) were recorded in Dilla and Wonago areas of Gedeo zone, respectively. The prevalence of BBC disease was recorded in both Sidama and Gedeo zones, 87.5 and 93.8%, respectively while the mean BBC disease prevalence was 90.7%. Symptomatic of 204 diseased samples were initially isolated and purified on nutrient agar (NA) and nutrient broth (NB) slants. Among 204 isolates, 37 BBC isolates were selected for biochemical tests based on similar morphological and in growth characteristics on selective media. The pathogenicity test response was conducted on coffee leaves in which all the isolates induced the hypersensitive reaction and confirmed. Out of 37 isolates, 8 isolates were analysed for the molecular characterization through RAPD analysis. Out of five primers, OPAC 04 (5’- ACG GGA CCTG-3’) primer revealed more number of RAPD patterns and polymorphism and hence differentiating all the isolates. The amplified fragments / bands ranged from 100 bp to above 1100 bp. Out of 8 isolates, the highest number of bands were observed in isolate 8 Gordahama FII T2. In other 6 isolates, the number of bands was ranged from 100 bp to above 950 bp and also uniform number of bands was noticed. The number of common bands was observed to be present in almost six isolates and the molecular weights of these ranged from 100 bp to 550 bp. This is clearly indicated that the genetic diversity of as Pseudomonas syringae pv garcae. The morphological and microscopic characters, β-glucosidase activity,biochemical nature and RAPD analysis of the test isolates confirmed the organism identity as Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae. The present study provided first information on molecular epidemiological about BBC isolates from Sidama and Gedeo zones in Ethiopia. The coffee production in Gedeo and Sidama zones is threatened by BBC at present, appropriate measures new to be developed to solve this problem, otherwise, the country will be lost foreign currency as a result, the life standard of farmers will be collapsed and leading to lost foreign income. 


Keywords: Coffee, Disease intensity, Pathogenecity, Molecular characterization, Bacterial blight, Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae, RAPD-PCR



Editor: Dr. Arvind Chavhan


Cite this article as:

Gabisa Giddisa Hinkosa, Alemu Lencho, Thangavel Selvaraj and Kasahun Sadessa (2017) Pathogenicity and molecular characterization of coffee bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae van Hall) isolates from Sidama and Gedeo Zones, SNNP Regional State, Ethiopia, International J. of Life Sciences, 5 (1): 35-45.



This research was conducted in partial fulfilment of the M.Sc., degree in Department of Plant Sciences, Ambo University, Ambo by the first author. Funding was provided by the Ministry of Education, Ethiopia.


Conflicts of interest: The authors stated that no conflicts of interest.



Copyright: © 2017 | Author(s), This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial - No Derivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.


Barta TM and Willis DK (2005) Biological and molecular evidence that Pseudomonas syringae   pathovars coronafaciens, striafaciens and garcae are likely the same pathovar. J. Phytopath. 153, 492–499.

Bayetta B (2001) Arabica coffee breeding for yield and resistance to coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae sp.nov.). Doctoral Dissertation. Imperial College at Wye University of London. UK. pp. 272.

CABI (2006) Crop Protection Compendium. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

CSA (Central Statistical Authority) (2006) Annual Statistical Abstract. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

CSA  (Central Statistical Authority) (2014/15) Annual Statistical Abstract. AddisAbaba, Ethiopia.

Fahy PC and Hawards GJ (1983) Plant bacterial disease, a diagnostic guide. Academic press, London, handbook. pp. 377-379.

Garcia-Vallve SJ, Palau A and Romeu (1999) Horizontal gene transfer in glycosyl hydrolases inferred from codon usage in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Biol. Evol 16: 1125-1134.

Geiser DM, Ivey MLL, Hakiza G, Juba JH and Miller SA (2005) Gibberella xylarioides (Anamorph: Fusarium xylarioides), a causative agent of coffee wilt disease in Africa, is a previously unrecognized member of the 

G. fujikuroi species complex.  Mycologia 97: 191-201.

Girma A, Chala J,  Demelash T and  Abate S (2008) New Record and Outbreaks of Bacterial Blight of Coffee (Pseudomonas Syringae) in Southern Ethiopia:  Impact of Climate Change Scenarios. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Haryani Y, Tunung, R,  Chai LC and Lee SY, Tang SY and Sonm R (2008) Characterisation of Enterobacter cloacae Isolated from street Foods.Asian Food J 15:57-64.

Hong FA,  Ferda H, Goran F and Kathrine D (2008) Molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum-Lactamases among Escherichia coli isolates collected in a Swedish hospital and its associated health care facilities from 2001 to 2006.J.Clin. Microbiol 46(2):707-712.

Ito DS, Sera T, Sera GH, Grossi LD  and Kanayama FS  (2008) Resistance to bacterial blight in arabica coffee cultivars. Crop breed. Applied Biotechnol. 8: 99-103.

Jansen AE (2005) Plant protection in coffee: Recommendations for the common code for the coffee community-initiative. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur TechnischeZusammenarbeit, GmbH.

Kairu GM (1997) Biochemical and pathogenic differences between Kenyan and Brazilian isolates Pseudomonas syringae pv.garcae. Plant Pathol, 46: 239-246.

Kairu GM, Nyangena CMS  and JE Muthamia JE (1985) The performance of copper-based bactericides in the control of bacterial blight of coffee and coffee berry disease in Kenya. Int. J. Pest Manage. 37: 1-5.

Karimi-Kurdistani G and Harighi B (2008) Phenotypic and molecular properties of Pseudomonas  syringae pv. syringae,  the causal agent of bacterial canker of stone fruit trees in Kurdistan province. Journal of Plant Pathology, 90:81-86.

Klement A and Goodman R (1967) The hypersensensitivy reaction to infection by bacterial plant pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 5:17-44.

Klement  Z,  Rudolp K, and Sands DC (1990) Methods in Phytobacteriology. pp 558.

Korobko A and Wondimagegn E (1997) Bacterial Blight of Coffee (Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae) in Ethiopia, Progress Report of PPRC, Ambo, Ethiopia.

Krieg NR (1984) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. (ed). Balti- more, MD, USA, Williams & Wilkins

Lelliott  RA and Stead DE (1987) Methods for the Diagnosis of Bacterial Diseases of Plants. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, UK, pp. 216.

Mohammadi MA. Ghasemi K and Rahimian H (2001) Phenotypic characterization of Iranian strains of Pseudomonas syringae  pv. syringae Van Hall, the causal agent of bacterial canker disease of stone fruit trees. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 3(1):51-65.

Mugiira  RB, Arama PF, Macharia JM and  Gichimu BM (2011) Antibacterial activity of foliar fertilizer formulations and their effect on ice nucleation activity of Pseudomonas syringae pv garcae Van Hall; the 

causal agent of Bacterial Blight of Coffee. Int. J. Agric. Res. 6(7):550 – 561.

Ramos AH, and  Shavdia LD (1976) A dieback of coffee in Kenya. Plant Dis. Rep. 60:831– 835

Roderic DM (1996) Page Tree View: An application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers Comput Appl Biosci 12 (4): 357-358 doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/12.4.357.

Sands DC (1999) Physiological Criteria Determinative Test. In. Klement Z, Rudolph K,   Sands DC (eds). Methods in Phytobacteriology. Akademia Kiado, Budapest, Hungary.pp.137-143.

Sands DC, Schroth MN and Hildebrand DC (1970) Taxonomy of phy- topathogenic pseudomonads. J Bacteriol 101:9–23.

Trautmann M, Bauer C, Schumann C, Hahn, P, Hoher M, Haller M and Lepper PM (2006) Common RAPD patern of Pseudomonas aeruginosafrmpacients and Tap water in a Medical Intensive care Unit. Int J Hyg Environ Health, 209:325-331.

York MK, Taylor MM, Hardy J and Henry M (2004) Biochemical tests for the identification of aerobic bacteria, Clinical Microbiology Procedures handbook, (2nd Ed.). ASM Press, Washington, DC, 3.17-39..







    Origin & Evolution

    Print ISSN : 2320-7817 

    Online ISSN:2320-964X

    UGC Approved Journal No. 48951


    46, Guruwandan, Jawahar Nagar, 

    VMV Road, Amravati- 444604

    Maharashtra, India.

    Tel  + 91- 9970559438  |   9420775527  

    Email: |