Image description

Published yearly: 

4 Issues


ISSN: 2320-964X (Online) 

ISSN: 2320-7817  (Print)



Dr. Santosh Pawar 




Int. Journal of Life Sciences, 2017; 5(2): 189- 197    |    Available online, June 30, 2017

Virulence of wheat leaf rust and reaction of cultivars to virulent races in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Tesfay Gebrekirstos1, Getaneh Woldeab2 , Thangavel Selvaraj3 and Arvind Chavhan4*

1Tigray Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), Mekelle Agricultural Research Center P.O. Box 258, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
2Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Ambo Plant Protection Research Center P.O. Box 37, Ambo, Ethiopia. | 3Ambo University P.O. Box 19, Ambo, Ethiopia.
4Digambarrao Bindu College, Bhokar, Nanded, 431801, MS, India, *Corresponding author:

Received: 07.03.2017    |     Accepted: 24.05.2017    |      Published :30.06.2017

This study was carried out to determine the virulence of P. triticina and evaluate the reaction of wheat cultivars to virulent races. Race analysis was carried out by inoculating isolates on to the 16 differential hosts. A total of 22 races were identified of which; PHTT, PHRT, THTT and FHRT were predominant races with frequencies of 20, 15, 10 and 10% respectively. The remaining 18 races were confined to specific locations with a frequency of 2.5% each. The broadest virulence spectrum was recorded from TKTT race, making 15 Lr genes ineffective. About 81% of Lr genes were ineffective to 55% of P. triticina isolates. Races TKTT, THTT and PHTT were used to evaluate the resistance of ten wheat cultivars in greenhouse. Bread wheat cultivars, Mekelle-3, Mekelle-4, Picaflor, Dashin and Local cultivar showed susceptible reaction to TKTT, THTT and PHTT races. Unlike bread wheat varieties, durum varieties, Ude and Dembi were resistant to these races. The result of this study showed most bread wheat varieties did not have adequate resistance for leaf rust. Hence, gene pyramiding of Lr9, Lr24 and Lr2a has paramount importance as the additive effects of several genes offer the variety a wider base for leaf rust resistance. Key words: Race, Puccinia triticina, Lr genes and differential hosts


Editor: Dr. R.G. Jadhao


Cite this article as:

Tesfay Gebrekirstos, Getaneh Woldeab, Thangavel Selvaraj and Arvind Chavhan (2017) Virulence of wheat leaf rust and reaction of cultivars to virulent races in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, International J. of Life Sciences, 5 (2): 189-197.



The author gratefully acknowledges Dr. Getaneh Woldeab for his technical support. The East African Agricultural Productivity Project and Tigray Agricultural Research Institute are acknowledged for providing full financial support to the first author.


Conflicts of interest: The authors stated that no conflicts of interest.



Copyright: © 2017 | Author(s), This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial - No Derivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.


Afzal SN, Haque I, Ahmedani MS, Munir M, Firdous SS, Rauf A, Ahmad I, Rattu AR and Fayyaz M (2009) Resistance potential of wheat germplasm (Triticum aestivum L.) against stripe rust disease under rain fed climate of Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot. 41(3): 1463-1475.

Ayele B, Eshetu B, Berhanu B, Bekelle H, Melaku D, Asnakech T, Amare A, Kiros M and Fekedu A (2008) Review on two decades of research on diseases of small cereal crops. In Abraham Tadesse (eds.) increasing crop production through improved plant protector Volume I. Proceedings of (4th Annual conference of the Plant protection Society of Ethiopia) 19-22 Dec.2006 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.PP.598.

International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement, CIMMYT (2005) Sounding the Alarm on Global Stem Rust. An assessment of race Ug99 in Kenya and Ethiopia and the potential for impact in neighboring regions and beyond. Prepared by the expert panel on the stem rust outbreak in Eastern Africa. 29 May 2005. CIMMYT, Mexico.

Central Statistical Authority, CSA (2009) Country level Agricultural products producer price index, (Ag-PPI). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pp 20-25.

Efrem B, Tesfaye T, Mengistu H and Yeshi A (1995) Breeding durum wheat for resistance to leaf rust and stem rusts in Ethiopia. In: Danial DL(ed.). Breeding for disease resistance with emphasis on durability. Proceedings of a regional workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. October 2-6, Njoro, Kenya. CIMMYT. Pp. 125-132.

Fetch TG and Dunsmore KM (2004) Physiological specialization of P. graminis on wheat, barley, and oat in Canada in 2001. Can. J. Plant Pathology. 26: 148-55.

Geleta B and Tanner G (1995) Status of cereal production and pathology research in Ethiopia. P.42-50. In D.L. Daniel (ed.). Breeding for diseases resistance with emphasis on durability. Regional wheat work shop for eastern, Central and Southern Africa, Njoro, Kenya.2-6 Oct.1994. Landbouwuniv. plant breeding Dep., Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Green G J (1975) Virulence changes in Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici in Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 53:1377-1386.

Hailu G (1991) Bread wheat breeding and genetic research in Ethiopia. In Hailu, G., Tanner, D.G. and Mangistu, H. (eds). Wheat production and research in Ethiopia: A historical perspectives. Addis Ababa. IAR / CIMMYT. pp. 73-93.

Kilpatric RA (1975) New wheat cultivars and longevity of rust resistances, 1971-1975. U.S. Dep. Agric. Res. Serv.

Kolmer JA (2003) Postulation of leaf rust resistance genes in selected soft red winter wheat. Crop Sci.43:1266-1274

Long DL, Schfer J F, Roelfs AP and Roberts JJ (1986) Virulence and epidemiology P. recondita f.sp.tritici in the United States in 1985. Plant dis.70:1107-1110.

Long and Kolmer JA (1989) A North American System of nomenclature for Puccinia triticina. Phytopathology 79:525-529

Mengistu H, Getaneh WA, Rebeka D and Ayele B (1991) Wheat pathology research in Ethiopia. In: wheat research in Ethiopia. A historical perspective. Addis Ababa, IAR /CIMMYT.

Mengistu H and Yeshi A (1992) Variation within indigenous durum wheat germplasm for responses to stem and leaf rust races in Ethiopia. In: Tonner, D.G. and Mwangi, W.(eds.) 7th Regional wheat workshop for Eastern, Central and South Africa. Nakuru, Kenya, CIMMYT Crop development department variety registration, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Mesterhazy A, Bartos P, Goyeau H, Niks RE, Csosza M, Andersen O, Casulli F, Ittu M, Jones E, Menisterski J, Manninger K, Pasquini M, Rubiales D, Schachermayr G, Strzembricka A, Szunics, L, Todorova M, Unger O, Vanco B, Vida G and Walther U (2000) European virulence survey for leaf rust in wheat. Agronomy, 20:793-804.

Roelfs AP (1982) Effects of barberry eradication on stem rust in the United States. Plant Dis. 66:177-181.
Roelfs AP, Singh RP and Saari EE (1992) Rust diseases of wheat. Concept and methods of disease management. Mexico, DF: CIMMYT.81. pp. 6.

Schafer JFand Roelfs AP (1985) Estimated relation between numbers of urediospores of P. graminis f.sp. tritici and rates of occurrences of virulence. Phytopathology, 75:749-750.

Sewalem AM, Heinz WD, Klaus P and Erich CO (2008) Postulation of seedling leaf rust resistance genes in selected Ethiopian and German bread wheat cultivars. Crop Science society of America, 48: 507-516.

Singh RP (1991) Pathogenecity variation of Puccinia recondita f.sp.tritici and P.graminis f.sp. tritici in wheat growing areas of Mexico during 1988-1989. Plant disease 75:790-794.

Stakman EC and Levine MN (1962) Analytical key for the identification of physiologic races of Puccinia graminis tritici. (Processed) division of cereal crops and dis., USDA, Minnestota Agric. Exp.Sta.pp.7.

Torabi M, Nazari K and Afshari F (2001) Genetics of pathogenecity of Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici, the causal agent of leaf rust of wheat. Iran.J. Agric.Sci. Abstract in English, 32: 635.

Tesemma Tand Bechere E (1998) Developing elite durum wheat selections (composites) for Ethiopian peasant farm use: Raising productivity while keeping diversity alive. Euphytica 102: 323 - 328.

White JW, Tanner DG and Corbett JD (2001) An agro-climatologically characterization of bread wheat production in Ethiopia. CIMMYT, Mexico NRG-GIS ser.0101.






    Origin & Evolution

    Print ISSN : 2320-7817 

    Online ISSN:2320-964X

    UGC Approved Journal No. 48951


    46, Guruwandan, Jawahar Nagar, 

    VMV Road, Amravati- 444604

    Maharashtra, India.

    Tel  + 91- 9970559438  |   9420775527  

    Email: |