Image description

Published yearly: 

4 Issues


ISSN: 2320-964X (Online) 

ISSN: 2320-7817  (Print)



Dr. Santosh Pawar 




Int. Journal of Life Sciences, 2017; 5(4): 527-542             |        Available online, December 05, 2017

Evaluation of fungicides sprays frequency for the management of chickpea Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab.) in Alemtena, East Showa, Ethiopia


Amelework Ejeta1, Thangavel Selvaraj1, Alemu Lencho1 and Getanah W/Ab2



1Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Ambo University, Ambo, Post Box No: 19, Ethiopia, East Africa.

2Department of Pathology, Ambo Plant Protection Agricultural Research Center, Ambo, Ethiopia, East Africa.

*Corresponding author: Email:   |    Contact: +251-913073294.


Received: 15.05.2017   |    Accepted: 25.11.2017   |  Published : 05.12.2017

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most important grain legume crops in Ethiopia which widely grown in marginal soils and usually as rotational crops in highland and semi-highland regions of the country. Despite the large area under chickpea cultivation, total production and productivity is quite low. Ascochyta blight is one of the most important diseases of chickpea in Ethiopia that affects the quantity and quality of chickpea yield. Foliar application of fungicides with different spray frequencies are commonly recommended for Ascochyta blight management. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in Alemtena, East Showa, Ethiopia during the main cropping season of 2015 to evaluate three fungicides (Mancozeb, Mancolaxyl and Othello Top) sprays frequencies for the management of chickpea Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei(Pass.) Lab.) on growth parameters, yield and yield components and yield losses of chickpea cultivar, Natoli under field conditions. The experiment was randomized complete block design in factorial arrangement with three replications. It consisted of three levels of spray frequencies (spray every one week, spray every two weeks and spray every three weeks) of three fungicides and control (untreated) treatments. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among the treatments except for days to maturity. There was a significant difference in Ascochyta blight disease incidence, severity, and infected pods per plant, infected seeds and Area under Disease Progressive Curve (AUDPC) among treatments. The comparison of means showed that application of fungicides was a suitable strategy for reduction of Ascochyta blight incidence, severity and AUDPC values as well as the maximizing seeds per pod, pods per plant, plant height, hundred seed weight and seed yield. Seed yield on sprayed plots, ranged from 1793-2261.4 kg ha-1 with mean values of 2061.3 kg ha-1 while, the seed yields measured from unsprayed (control) plots were smaller than sprayed plots (1046.7 kg ha-1). Disease severities and AUDPC rates had negative correlations with seed yield and hundred seed weight in comparison to their correlations with yield. Optimum net benefits of Ethiopian Birr, 50098.5 ha-1 and 47922.2 ha-1 were obtained from Mancozeb and Othello Top fungicides sprayed every three weeks, respectively and recorded highly effective in decreasing Ascochyta blight disease symptoms in chickpea cultivar Natoli and increased yield. Therefore, Mancozeb and Othello Top fungicides sprayed every three weeks are economically beneficial compared to the other treatments. Further, the effective and feasible integrated management options need to be developed on chickpea Ascochyta blight disease in the country.

Keywords: Chickpea, Ascochyta blight, Ascochyta rabiei, Fungicides, Spray frequency.



Editor: Dr.R.G. Jadhao


Cite this article as:

Amelework Ejeta, Thangavel Selvaraj, Alemu Lencho and Getanah W (2017) Evaluation of fungicides sprays frequency for the management of chickpea Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab.) in Alemtena, East Showa, Ethiopia International J. of Life Sciences, 5 (4): 527-542.



This research was conducted in partial fulfillment of the M.Sc., degree in Department of Plant Sciences, Ambo University, Ambo by the first author. Funding was provided by the Ministry of Education, Ethiopia..


Conflicts of interest: The authors stated that no conflicts of interest.



Copyright: © 2017 | Author(s), This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial - No Derivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.



Acikgoz N Karaca MEC and Meyveci K (1994). Chickpea and lentil production in Turkey. In: Muehlbauer F.J. and W.J. Kaiser (Eds.) Expanding the Production and Use of Cool Season Food Legumes. Kluwer Academic Publ., The Netherlands. pp. 388-398.

Ahmad HU Chang KF Hwang SF Gossen BD Howard RJ and Warkentin TD (2006). Component of disease resistance in desi and kabuli chickpea varieties against Ascochyta blight. J. Plant Path. 5(3):336-342.

Ahmed S and Beniwal SPS (1991). Ascochyta blight of lentil and its control in Ethiopia. Tropical Pest Management 37, 368--373.

Amin Mohammed and Fufa Melkamu (2014). Management of Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) in Chickpea using a new fungicide. Research in Plant Sciences 2, no. 1, 27-32.

Armstrang CL Chongo G Gossen BD and Duczek CJ (2001). Mating type distribution and incidence of the teleomorph of Ascochyta rabiei (Didymella rabiei) in Canada. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 23:110-113.

Armstron CL Chongo G Gossen BD and Duczek CJ (2008). The effect of carrier volume on ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) control in chickpea. Crop Protection. 27: 1020-1030..

Asfaw T (1993). Culture collection of Rhizobium strains of some important pulses of Ethiopia at the National Soil Laboratory. Improvement of soil service for Agricultural Development, (Eth. /87/ 010) Document No. 71, NSSP, MoA., Pp.9

Bashir N Hashmi MI and Jamil FF (1997). Induction of systemic acquired resistance by oxalic acid in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) against Ascochyta rabiei. Pak. J. Phytopathol. 9(1):18-20.

Bellido López (2008). Effect of planting date on winter kabuli chickpea growth and yield under rain fed Mediterranean conditions” Agron. J., 100: 957-964.

Bretag TW Keane PJ and Price TV (2006). The epidemiology and control of Ascochyta blight in field peas: a review. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 57, 883--902.

Campbell L and Madden LV (1990). Introduction to Plant Disease Epidemiology, John Wiley and Sons, New York, Pp. 532.

Chang D Buchwaldt L and Gossen BD (2007). Impact of cultivar, row spacing and seeding rate on ascochyta blight severity and yield of chickpea. Can. J. Plant Sci., 87: 395-403. 2007.

Chongo G Buchwaldt L Gossen BD Lafond GP May ME Johnson EN and Hogg T (2003) Foliar fungicides to manage Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) of chickpea in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 25, 135--142.

CIMMYT (1988). Farm Agronomic Data to Farmers’ Recommendations: Economic Training Manual. CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Center), Mexico, Pp 124.

CSA (Central Statistics Authority) (2010). Crop Production Forecast Sample Survey, 2010/11 (2003 E.C.). Report on area and crop production forecast for major grain crops Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Davidson JA and Kimber RBE (2007). Integrated disease management of Ascochyta blight in pulse crops. European Journal of Plant Pathology., 119: 99-110.

FAOSTAT (2015). Food and Agriculture Organization at htt://,accessed on May 12, 2015.

Gan YT Siddique KHM MacLeod WJ and Jayakumar P (2006). Management options for minimising the damage by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Field Crops Research 97, 121--134. doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2005.10.002

Gan M Gowda CLL Knights EJ and Warkentin T (2003). Inter relationships among yield components of chickpea in semiarid environments. Can. J. Plant Sci., 83: 759-767.

Gaur PM Tripathi S Gowda CLL Ranga Rao GV Sharma HC Pande S and Sharma M  (2010). Chickpea Seed Production Manual, ICRISAT, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh,    

Haware MP (1998). Diseases of chickpea. In: The pathology of food and pasture legumes. (Eds. DJ Allen, JM Lenne) Pp. 473--516. (CAB International and ICRISAT: Wallingford, UK)

Iqbal SM Bukhsh A Shabbir A and Bashir M (1989). Field evaluation of fungicides for Ascochyta blight in lentil. Sar. J. Agri. 5(3): 307-308.

Iqbal SM Ghafoor A Bakhsh A and Bashir M (2002). Disease resistance status of chickpea genotypes against Ascochyta blight. Pak. J. Phytopathol. 14 (2):135-139.

Jamil FF Sarwar M Haq I and Bashir N (1995). Identification of pathotypes in Ascochyta rabiei(Pass.) Labr. The cause of chickpea blight in Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot. 27:193-199.

Jimenez-Diaz RM Crino P Halila MH Mosconi C and Trapero-Casas AT (1993). Screening for resistance to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta blight in chickpea. In: K.B. Singh and M.C. Saxena (Eds.) Breeding for Stress Tolerance in Cool-Season Food Legumes. ICARDA. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK. Pp. 77-95.

Kaiser WJ and Hannan RM (1988). Seed transmission of Ascochyta rabiei in chickpea and its control by seed-treatment fungicides. Seed Sci., technology, 16: 625-637. 

Kantar F Hafeez FY Shivakumar BG  Sundaram  SP  Tejera NA  Aslam  A Bano  A and  Raja  P  (2007).  Chickpea: Rhizobium management and nitrogen fixation.  In: Chickpea Breeding and Management, (Yadav, S.S., Redden, R., Chen, W. and Sharma, B ( eds). CAB, Wallingford, UK, Pp.  101–142.

Legesse D GureKummsa G and Teshale A (2006). Production and marketing of white pea beans in Rift Valley of Ethiopia: A sub sector analysis CRS-Ethiopia Program, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Malik MA and Bashir M (1984). Strategies for controlling gram blight. Prog. Farm. 4(5):21-23.

McMurray L Brand J Davidson J Hobson K and Materne M (2006). Economic chickpea production for southern Australia through improved varieties and strategic management to control ascochyta blight. In: Ground breaking stuff. Proceedings of the 13th Australian Agronomy Conference, Perth.Pp. 65. (Australian Society of Agronomy: Perth)

Menale K Bekele S Asfaw S Abate T Muricho G Ferede S Eshete M and KebebewAssefa K  (2009). Current Situation and Future Outlooks of the Chickpea Sub-sector in Ethiopia. ICRISAT (Nairobi) and EIAR (DebreZeit).

Mengistu H and Negussie T (1994). Chickpea and lentil diseases research in Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of Cool-season Food legumes of Ethiopia (Asfaw T., Bejiga, G., Saxena, M.C. and Solh, M.B., (eds.). The First National Cool-season food Legumes Review Conference, 16-20 December 1993, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia: ICARDA/Institute of Agricultural Research. ICARDA, Aleppo. Pp. 346-366

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MoARD) (2010). Crop Variety Register Issue No. 13, Animal and Plant Health regulatory directorate, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MoARD) (2013). Crop Variety Register No. 17, Animal and Plant Health Regulatory Directorate, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Mucella T Muzaffer I and Muehlbauer FJ (2004). QTL Analysis of Ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea. Turk. J. Agric. 28: 183-187.

Muehlbauer FJ and Singh KB (1987). Genetics of chickpea (Cicer arietinumL) In: M.C. Sexana and K.B. Singh (Eds.), The chickpea CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8DE UK. Pp. 99 - 126.

Muehlbauer FJ and Rajesh PN (2008). Chickpea, a common source of protein and starch in the Semi-Arid Tropics. In: Genomics of Tropical Crop Plants. PP. 171-186, (Moore, P.H. and Ming, R., eds.). Johnson Hall, Washington State University, Pullman, USA.

Nene YL and Reddy MV (1987). Chickpea diseases and their control. In: The chickpea, Saxena M. C. and K. B. Singh, (Eds.). CAB In: International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas. Pp. 233-270.

Pande S Siddique KHM Kishore GK Bayaa B Gaur PM Gowda CLL Bretag T   and Crouch JH  (2005). Ascochyta blight of chickpea (Cicer arietinumL.): a Review of Biology, Pathogenicity and Disease Management. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 56, 317-332.

Pande S Siddique KHM Kishore GK Bayaa B Gaur PM Gowda CLL Bretag TW and Crouch JH (2011). Development of screening techniques and identification of new sources of resistance to Ascochytablight disease of chickpea. Australian J. Plant Pathology, 40: 149-156.

Rauf CA Malik MR Iqbal SM Rahat S and Hussain S (1996). Fungicides an economic tool to enhance productivity and net returns in chickpea crop. Sar. J. Agric. 12(4): 445-448.

Rechcing NA and Rechcing JE (1997). Environmental Safe Approaches to Crop Disease Control,  CRC., Lewis Publisher, NewYork.

Reddy M and Singh V (1984). Laboratory techniques for isolation and multiplication of Ascochyta rabiei. In: Proc. Symp. On the Role of Induced Mutations in Crop Improvement. Osmania Univ. Hyderabad, India. Pp. 103-104.

Reddy MV and Singh KB (1984). Evaluation of world collection of chickpea germplasm accession for resistance to Ascochyta blight Plant Dis., 68: 900-901.

SAS Institute Inc. (2007). The SAS system for windows. Version 9.13. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc. USA.

Shtienberg D Kimber RBE McMurray L and Davidson JA (2006). Optimisation of the chemical control of ascochyta blight in chickpea. Australasian Plant Pathology 35, 715--724. doi: 10.1071/AP06069

Singh KB and Malhotra  RS  (1984). Collection and evaluation of chickpea genetic resourses.  In: Genetic  Resourses  and  their  Exploitation-  Chickpea, Faba-beans and Lentils. (Eds.) Witcomb, J.R. and Erskine, W. ICARDA and IBPGR.

Tadesse N Bejiga G and Ayalew M (1998). Survey and identification of major organisms causing wilt and root rots and their relative importance in chickpea and lentil in Ethiopia on cool-season Food Legumes and Cereals. Regional Networks Annual Report 1997/98: Cairo, Egypt.

Trapero-Casas, A and Kaiser, W.J. 1992. Development of Didymellarabiei, the teleomorph of Ascochytarabiei on chickpea straw. Phytopathology, 82: 1261-1266.

Wheeler JBEJ (1969). An Introduction to Plant Diseases. Wiley, London, Pp. 347.







    Print ISSN : 2320-7817 

    Online ISSN:2320-964X


    46, Guruwandan, Jawahar Nagar, 

    VMV Road, Amravati- 444604

    Maharashtra, India.

    Tel  + 91- 9970559438  |   9420775527  

    Email: |