Image description

Published yearly: 

4 Issues


ISSN: 2320-964X (Online) 

ISSN: 2320-7817  (Print)



Dr. Santosh Pawar 




Int. Journal of Life Sciences, 2018; 6(4): 877-884      |                 Available online, December 22, 2018

Cytochemical characterisation of photochemically 

 formed, self-sustaining, abiogenic, protocell-like, supramolecular assemblies “Jeewanu”


Gupta VK1* and Rai RK2


1Department of Zoology, C.M. Dubey Post Graduate College, Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh) India.

2Department of Zoology, Govt. Mahamaya College Ratanpur, Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh) India.

*Corresponding author: Email - &   | Mob. No. - 09424153429



Received: 19.10.2018   |   Accepted: 23.11.2018   |  Published: 22.12.2018

Sunlight exposed sterilised aqueous mixture of some inorganic and organic substances reported by Bahadur and Ranganayaki provided an optimal physico-chemical environment for the self-assembly of molecules and photochemical formation of self-sustaining, abiogenic, protocell-like model ‘Jeewanu’. They possess an ordered structural configuration. They are capable of showing multiplication by budding, growth from within. The histochemical findings showed that the acidic material-like substances were localised in the central region, basic material-like substances were localised in extra central region while phospholipid-like substances were present in outer limiting surface of Jeewanu. The presence of RNA-like material is significant. In plausible prebiotic atmosphere the synthesized protocell-like model similar to Jeewanu was photoautotrophic in nature. They have an ability to convert solar energy into vital activities or useful forms.


Keywords: Jeewanu, Self-sustaining, Supramolecular, Abiogenesis, Protocells



Editor: Dr.Arvind Chavhan


Cite this article as:

Gupta VK and Rai RK (2018) Cytochemical characterisation of photochemically formed, self-sustaining, abiogenic, protocell-like, supramolecular assemblies “Jeewanu”, Int. J. of. Life Sciences, Volume 6(4): 877-884.


Conflicts of interest: The authors stated that no conflicts of interest.



Copyright: © 2018 | Author(s), This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial - No Derives License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.


Bahadur K, (1964) Conversion of lifeless matter into living system. Zentrablatt fur Bacteriologie, 118, 2, 671.

Bahadur K and Gupta VK (1984) Histochemical detection of acid Phosphatase-like activity in Jeewanu, the abiogenically formed proto-cell-like molecular associations.  In G. K. Manna and U. Sinha (Eds.), Perspectives in Cytology and Genetics, 45, Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur, India, 205-208.

Bahadur K (1975) Photochemical formation of self-sustaining coacervates capable of growth, multiplication and metabolic activity. Zbl. Bakt., 130, (II), 211-218.

Bahadur K (1954) Photosynthesis of amino acids from paraformaldehyde and potassium nitrate. Nature, 173, 1141.

Bahadur K, Ranganayaki S, Folsome C, Smith A (1980) A Functional Approach to the Origin of Life Problem. National Academy of Sciences, India: Golden Jubilee Commemoration Volume, 1-18.

Bahadur K and Ranganayaki S (1970)  Photochemical formation of self-sustaining Coacervates, J.  Brit. Interplanetary Soc., 23, 12, 813-829.

Bahadur K, Ranganayaki S, Verma HC, Srivastava RB, Agarwal K.M.L, Pandey RS., Saxena I, Malviya AN, Kumar V, Perti ON, Pathak HD (1964) Synthesis of Jeewanu - Part II Photochemical preparation of growing, multiplying units with metabolic activities. Zbl. Bakt. Abt. II, 117, 575-584.

Bahadur K, Shrivastava RB (1963)  Preparation of Jeewanu units capable of growth, multiplication and metabolic activity. Vijnana parishad anusandhan patrika, 6,  63-117.

Bahadur K (1966) Synthesis of Jeewanu the Protocell. Ram Narain Lal Beni Prasad, Allahabad, India, 1966.

Bahadur K, Verma PK (1981)  Histochemical study of lipid-like material in photochemically formed Jeewanu, the protocell, with formaldehyde partially repleced by other organic sources. Journal of the British interplanetary society, 34, 100-102.

Bernal J D (1959) The problem of stages in Biopoesis, The origin of life on the Earth, Pergamon Pess, London, 38-53.

Briggs MH (1965) Experiments on the origin of cells. Space Flight, 7, 4, 129.

Budin I, Bruckner R, Szostak JW (2009)  Formation of protocell-like vesicles in a thermal diffusion column, J. Am. Chem. Soc,  131, 9628–9629.

Chen IA, Szostak JW (2004) Membrane growth can generate a transmembrane pH gradient in fatty acid vesicles, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 101, 7965-7970.

Chiffelle TL, Putt FA (1951) Stain Tech, 26, 51.

Deamer DW (2007) Emergent phenomenon in biology, the origin of cellular life, Cambridge university press, Cambridge, 2007, 89.

Deamer DW (2002) Signs of life, National Research Council, Washington D. C., USA, National academic press,  68.

Deamer D (2009) On the Origin of systems. EMBO Rep., 10, 51-54.

Deamer D, Singaram S, Rajamani S, Kompanichenko V, Guggenheim S (2006) Self assembly process in the prebiotic environment. Philos Trans R Soc Lond, B Biol Sci,  361, 1809–1818.

Ganti TA (1971) z elet Principuma ,The principle of life, 1st ed., Gondolat, Budapest, Hungary.

Ganti T (2003) Chemoton Theory of Living Systems. Kluwer Academic Plenum Publishers, New York (US), 329.

Gupta VK, Rai RK (2013) Histochemial localization of RNA-like material in photochemically formed self-sustaining, abiogenic supramolecular assemblies ‘Jeewanu’ Int. Res. J of Science & Engineering, 1 (1), 1-4.

Gupta VK, Rai RK (2015) Detection of Thiamine phosphatase-like activity in  minimal protocell-like microstructures ‘Jeewanu’ Int. Res. J of Science & Engineering, 3 (1), 1-6.

Grote M (2011) Jeewanu, or ‘Particles of Life’ The approach of Krishna Bahadur in 20th century origin of life research. Perspective, 1-12.

Hanczyc MM, Fujikawa SM, Szostak JW (2003) Experimental models of primitive cellular compartments: Encapsulation, Growth and Division. Science, 302, 618-622.

Hanczyc M M, Szostak JW (2004) Current Opinion in chemical biology. Elsevier, 8, 660-664.

Hazen RM (2004) Chiral crystal faces of common rock-forming minerals. In Progress in Biological Chirality (Eds. Palyi G et al.), Elsevier, New York, 137–151.

Hazen RM, Filley TR, Goodfriend GA (2001) Selective absorption of L and D amino acids on calcite: implications for biochemical homochirality,  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, USA, 98, 5487-5490.

Hazen RM, Sverjensky DA (2010) Mineral surfaces, Geochemical complexities and the origin of life, Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol., doi: 10.1101, 1-15.

Hull DE (1960) Thermodynamics and kinetics of spontaneous generation. Nature, 186, 693-695.

Johnston WK, Unrau PJ, Lawrence MS, Glasner ME, Bartel DP (2001) RNA-Catylized RNA polymerization: Accurate and General RNA-Templated primer extension. Science, 292, 1319–1325.

Joyce GF, Orgel LE (2006) In the RNA world (eds  Gesteland R. F., Cech T. R., and Atkins J. F.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 23-65.

Kurnick NB (1955) Pyronin Y in the methyl-green-pyronin histological stain. Stain Tech, 30, 213.

Lasaga AC (1990) Atomic treatment of mineral-water surface reactions. In Mineral-water interface geochemistry, ed. MF Hochella Jr, AF White, Rev Mineral,   23, 17–85.

Linda DC, Ponnamperuma C (1967) A review of some experiments on the synthesis of “Jeewanu”. Ames Research Center, NASA-Langley, 1-6.

Luisi PL (1998) About various definitions of life, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph,  28, 613-622.

Luisi PL (2006) The Emergence of Life, From Chemical Origin to Synthetic Biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mansy SS, Schrum JP, Krishnamurthy M, Tobe S, Treco DA, Szostak JW (2008) Template-directed synthesis of a genetic polymer in a model protocell, Nature, London,  454, 122-125.

Mansy SS, Szostak JW (2009) Reconstructing the emergence of cellular life throughout the synthesis of model protocell, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology ,Cold Spring Harbor laboratory press, vol. I XXIV, 078-087969870.

Mueller P, Rudin DO (1970) Translocator in biomolecular lipid membranes, their role in dissipative and conservative bioenergy transduction, Curr, Topic Bioenerg, 3, 157.

Orgel L (1997) Polymerization on the rocks, theoretical introduction, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph, 28, 227-234.

Pa, N et al. (1986) Inorganic pyrophosphate synthesis after a short light flesh in chromatophores from rhodospirillum rubrum, Photobiochemistry and Photobiophysics, II, 189-196.

Pereira de Souza TP, Steiniger F, Stano, Fahr  A, Luisi PL (2011) Spontaneous crowding of ribosomes and proteins inside vesicle: A possible mechanism for the origin of cell metabolism, ChemBiochem,10.0002, 1-7.

Pohorille A, Deamer DW (2002) Artificial cells prospects for biotechnology, Trends Biotechnol, 20, 123-128.

Ranganayaki S, Raina V, Bahadur K (1972) Detection of nucleic acid bases in photochemically synthesized self-sustaining coacervates. J. of Brit. Interplanetary Soc, 25, 5, 279-285.

Rao KK (1978) Carbon dioxide reduction and nitrogenase activity in organo- molybdenum microstructures. Experientia, 37, Biophotolysis of water for hydrogen production and artificial catalytic systems, Abstract presented at the BASE Symposium, Madurai, India.

Rasmussen S, Chen L, Deamer D, Krakauer DC, Packard NH, Stadler PF, Bedau MA (2004) Transition from nonliving to living matter, Science, 303, 963-965.

Rasmussen S, Chen L, Nielson M, Abe S (2003) Bridging nonliving and living matter, Artificial Life, 9, 269-316.

Rasmussen S, Chen L, Stadler BM, Stadler PF (2004) Orig. Lif. Evol Biosph, 34, 171.

Schrum JP, Zhu TF, Szostak JW (2010) The origin of cellular life. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, doi., 10:1101, 1-5.

Shapiro HM, Mandy F (2007) Cytometry in malaria: moving beyond Giemsa. Cytometry. Part A, The journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, 71, 9, 643–5.

Singh RC (1973) Studies in abiogenesis of enzyme-like material. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, Chemistry Department, University of Allahabad, India.

Singh YP (1975) Studies in Abiogenesis of Phospholipids. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, Chemistry Department, University of Allahabad, India.

Smith A, Folsome C, Bahadur K (1981) Carbon dioxide reduction and nitrogenase activity in organo-molybdenum microstructures. Experientia, 37, 357-359.

Smith Cairns (1982) Genetic Takeover and the mineral origin of Life, A.G. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Stano P, Ferri F, Luisi PL (2011) Semi-Synthetic Minimal Living Cells. Chemical Synthetic Biology, 247-286.

Szostak JW, Bartel DP, Luisi PL (2001) Synthesizing life. Nature., 409, 387.

Zhu TF, Szostak JW (2009) Coupled Growth and division of model protocell membranes, J. Am. chem. Soc., 131, 5705-5713.

Zhu TF, Szostak JW (2009) Preparation of large monodisperse vesicles. PLOS one, 4, 1-4.








    Origin & Evolution

    Print ISSN : 2320-7817 

    Online ISSN:2320-964X


    46, Guruwandan, Jawahar Nagar, 

    VMV Road, Amravati- 444604

    Maharashtra, India.

    Tel  + 91- 9970559438  |   9420775527  

    Email: |