Published yearly: 

4 Issues


ISSN: 2320-964X (Online) 

ISSN: 2320-7817  (Print)



Dr. Santosh Pawar 




Int. Journal of Life Sciences, 2019; 7(1): 133-139         |                   Available online, March 31, 2019

Microbially induced calcite precipitation through urolytic organisms – A Review  

Gondaleeya Shraddha and Marjadi Darshan

Shree Ramkrishna Institute Computer Education & Applied Sciences, MTB Campus, Athwalines, Surat- 395001, Gujarat.


Received : 22.02.2019    |   Accepted : 26.03.2019   |    Published : 31.03.2019

Bio cementation is a novel process in a geotechnical engineering that deal with the application of microbiological activity to improve the properties of soil. The most common process is through microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP). This technique also known as bio mineralization process in which urolytic bacteria hydrolyzes urea via metabolic pathway through various reactions which raises the pH of the system. In the presence of the calcium ions, as pH shifts the saturation state of the system, which allowing the solid calcium carbonate formation. The ubiquity and importance of microbes in inducing calcite precipitation make “Bio cement” a most important metabolic product of Bio mineralization. This review presents the detailed mechanism of bio calcite production, factor effect on the formation bio calcite, list of organisms involves in formation of bio calcite, and their application in various field. Finally, we discuss about the advantages and disadvantages of Bio cement.    


Keywords: Bio mineralization, Carbonate precipitation, Urolysis, Bio cementation, Bioconsolodation. 



Editor: Dr.Arvind Chavhan


Cite this article as:

Gondaleeya Shraddha and Marjadi Darshan (2019) Microbially induced calcite precipitation through urolytic organisms – A Review, Int. J. of. Life Sciences, Volume 7(1): 133-139. 


Conflicts of interest: The authors stated that no conflicts of interest.



Copyright: © 2019 | Author(s), This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial - No Derives License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.


Achal V, Mukherjee A, Basu PC & Reddy MS (2009) Lactose mother liquor as an alternative nutrient source for microbial concrete production by Sporosarcina pasteurii. Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology, 36(3), 433-438.

Al-Thawadi SM (2011) Ureolytic bacteria and calcium carbonate formation as a mechanism of strength enhancement of sand. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Res, 1(1), 98-114.

Anbu P, Kang CH, Shin YJ & So JS (2016) Formations of calcium carbonate minerals by bacteria and its multiple applications. Springerplus, 5(1), 250.

Arias D, Cisternas L & Rivas M (2017) Biomineralization mediated by ureolytic bacteria applied to water treatment: A review. Crystals, 7(11), 345.

Bindschedler S, Cailleau G & Verrecchia E (2016) Role of fungi in the biomineralization of calcite. Minerals, 6(2), 41.

Cuzman OA, Wittig L, Abancéns FR, Herrera C, Anastasi NR & Alonso LS (2015) Bacterial “masons” at work with wastes for producing eco-cement. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 6(10), 767.

Dhami NK, Reddy SM & Mukherjee A (2012) Biofilm and microbial applications in biomineralization concrete. In Advanced topics in Biomineralization. IntechOpen.

Dhami NK, Reddy MS & Mukherjee A (2013) Bacillus megaterium mediated mineralization of calcium carbonate as biogenic surface treatment of green building materials. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 29(12), 2397-2406.

Fang C, Kumari D, Zhu X, & Achal V (2018) Role of fungal-mediated mineralization in biocementation of sand and its improved compressive strength. International biodeterioration & biodegradation, 133, 216-220.

Krishnapriya S & Babu DV (2015) Isolation and identification of bacteria to improve the strength of concrete. Microbiological research, 174, 48-55.

Maheswaran S, Dasuru SS, Murthy ARC, Bhuvaneshwari B, Kumar VR, Palani GS, ... & Sandhya, S (2014) Strength improvement studies using new type wild strain Bacillus cereus on cement mortar. Current Science, 50-57.

Marjadi DS (2016) Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage: A biotechnological approach. Advances in Applied Science Research, 7(4), 159-167.

Mujah D, Shahin MA & Cheng L (2017) State-of-the-art review of biocementation by microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) for soil stabilization. Geomicrobiology Journal, 34(6), 524-537.

Nazel T (2016) Bioconsolidation of Stone Monuments. An Overview. Restoration of Buildings and Monuments, 22(1), 37-45.

Parmar S & Marjadi D. Bio Cementation: A Novel Technique and Approach Towards Sustainable Material.

Perito B, Marvasi M, Barabesi C, Mastromei G, Bracci S, Vendrell M & Tiano P (2014) A Bacillus subtilis cell fraction (BCF) inducing calcium carbonate precipitation: biotechnological perspectives for monumental stone reinforcement. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 15(4), 345-351.

Qian C, Yu X, & Wang X (2018) Potential uses and cementing mechanism of bio-carbonate cement and bio-phosphate cement. AIP Advances, 8(9), 095224.

Sarayu K, Iyer NR & Murthy AR (2014) Exploration on the biotechnological aspect of the ureolytic bacteria for the production of the cementitious materials—a review. Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, 172(5), 2308-2323.

Seifan M, Samani AK & Berenjian A (2016) Bioconcrete: next generation of self-healing concrete. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 100(6), 2591-2602.

Sensoy T, Bozbeyoglu N, Dogan N, Bozkaya O, Akyol E (2017) Characterization of Calcium Carbonate Produced by ureolytic bacteria (Sporocarcina pasteurii ATCC 6453 and Bacillus aerius U2) and Effect of Environmental Conditions on Production of Calcium Carbonate.15th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology.

Shirakawa MA, John VM, De Belie N, Alves JV, Pinto JB & Gaylarde CC (2015) Susceptibility of biocalcite-modified fiber cement to biodeterioration. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 103, 215-220.

Uma VS, Dineshbabu G, Subramanian G, Uma L & Prabaharan D (2014) Biocalcification mediated remediation of calcium rich ossein effluent by filamentous marine cyanobacteria. J. Bioremed. Biodeg, 5(257), 10-4172.

Varalakshmi AD & Devi A (2014) Isolation and characterization of urease utilizing bacteria to produce biocement. IOSR-JESTFT, 8, 52-57.

Wang X, Schröder HC & Müller WE (2014) Biocalcite, a multifunctional inorganic polymer: Building block for calcareous sponge spicules and bioseed for the synthesis of calcium phosphate-based bone. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 5(1), 610-621.

Yoosathaporn S, Tiangburanatham P, Bovonsombut S, Chaipanich A, & Pathom-Aree W (2016) A cost effective cultivation medium for biocalcification of Bacillus pasteurii KCTC 3558 and its effect on cement cubes properties. Microbiological research, 186, 132-138.

Yu X, Qian C & Jiang J (2019) Desert sand cemented by bio-magnesium ammonium phosphate cement and its microscopic properties. Construction and Building Materials, 200, 116-123.

Zhu T & Dittrich M (2016) Carbonate precipitation through microbial activities in natural environment, and their potential in biotechnology: a review. Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 4, 4.s








    Origin & Evolution

    Print ISSN : 2320-7817 

    Online ISSN:2320-964X


    46, Guruwandan, Jawahar Nagar, 

    VMV Road, Amravati- 444604

    Maharashtra, India.

    Tel  + 91- 9970559438  |   9420775527  

    Email: |